1810 Riding Habit

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 1810 Riding habit.

 

Today we are looking  at  yet anothern of my favourites,  a Regency riding habit,  closely based on the exhibit from the Kyoto Costume Institute ( if you have the book, it is on page171-173,  inv AC5313, 86-2AB –  or simply find it here. I am not really a fan of Regency fashions as they are not exactly flattering for my figure, but this habit did catch my eye and my imagination because of its simple elegance and surprisingly, not such a high waistline.  And so, after craving it for the last two years or so, the time had come for me to tackle the project about 2 years ago – and if you fancy having a go as well, I hope you find the information and the instructions below useful.

 1. close up of the original  habit

riding habit 1810

 Background information and research.

 

Those two photos were all I really had to go with. I did write to the Institute asking if it was possible to obtain more information regarding the cloth, lining or the buttons – or maybe just a few more images, but was very politely told that the museum did not provide that service.  So all I had was a short description stating that it is ‘a Riding Suit, c.1810; black wool broadcloth; set of tailored jacket and a skirt of appropriate length for horse riding’.

Not much then – but a start.

The decoration on the front of the jacket is very similar to another item from the institute, a hunting Jacket – a spencer (INV.AC3187 80-8-1, dated 1815). The length of the spencer is also reminiscent of the one of the riding jacket.

The back of the jacket closely resembles that of the riding habit in Salisbury museum described in detail by Janet Arnold in her Patterns of Fashion 1 (page 46). The Salisbury museum skirt features there would also be suitable for my project – there are differences between the original I had in mind, but after careful deliberation, I decided to stick on to the well documented source and pattern instead of doing more improvising.

 

The idea was then to use the pattern from Janet Arnold for the skirt and the back of the bodice, and improvise the front of the jacket – and as i have discovered a little bit later on, exactly what another excellent costumier had done before – though she seemed to have opted for the hunting spencer front instead (http://www.koshka-the-cat.com/riding_habit.html).

 

 

 Materials needed

Black broadcloth wool – 3.5m;

Silk taffeta (lining of the jacket, plus skirts bodice) – 1.5m

Linen (lining for the skirt bodice (0.5m)

40 Wooden moulds for the jacket buttons (or just use ordinary buttons)

2 small and 4 tiny buttons or moulds for the skirt bodice closure

A strip of buckram for lining the collar

Black and white linen thread,

Beige silk thread

2m of linen tape for the skirt ties

Hooks and eyes if you plan to attach your jacket to the skirt

 

  The skirt.

The skirt is attached to a small silk bodice, lined with linen.  There is no mention of the skirt being lined at all – not surprisingly though, since lining the skirt with silk or even linen, would render it even more slippery and compromise the rider’s grip. My 18th century habit  has a skirt lined with silk, as that’s what the original had for lining, and whereas it rides well and I wouldn’t have problems riding in a show in it, I would not take it out hunting. Considering the fact that in the Regency period side saddles were not the safest contraptions (the leaping head that provides so much more secure grip was yet to be invented), and taking into the account the fact that due to the fencing off the countryside jumping the fences became a necessity, a spirited lady who wished to follow the hunt needed all the help she could get. Indeed, it is believed that some were even strapping themselves to the saddles to help them over the fences  – not the safest idea really. All things considered, it looked as the lack of lining made sense – many thanks to Gini Newton and Becca Holland for helping me out with this issue! )

2. the-inconvenience-of-wigs-carle-vernet-1758-1836-the-lewis-walpole-library-yale-university

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The pattern –  Janet Arnold. I scaled the bodice pattern to fit me, but left the skirt as it was without any changes.

The  skirt bodice construction:

3. linen mock up pieces - later used as lining

3. linen mock up pieces – later used as lining

1. Cut out the pieces in calico or linen to form a mock up. If you are lucky and your mock up doesn’t require any serious changes, your linen mock up can serve as the lining.

2. Pin or baste the pieces together, leaving it open on the right side. Try on – either on yourself or on a pre-prepared dummy. Make sure you try it on the underwear you are planning to wear with it – especially if you are wearing Regency stays – the bust position is very different to the one the modern bra gives – particularly true for more ample bosoms.

3. Adjust as necessary till you are satisfied with the outcome. Unpin the pieces and use them to draw the pattern.

4.  Cut out the bodice in your top fabric and lining.

5. Sew the top pieces together: first insert the little gussets in the front pieces, and then sew the back pieces and left front together. Add the shoulder straps. The right piece with the gusset is on its own for the time being, it will be stitched directly to the waistband of the skirt later. Press the seams open.  Repeat the same steps with the lining pieces

4. top fabric sewn together

top fabric sewn together

 

4. Fold the top edges of the silk and stitch it down.  Snip the curves and notch to avoiding bulk- the fabric should lay flat on the curves

6. top fabric edges folded and  pinned up ready to be  sewn

 

8. silk bodice with edges secured

silk bodice with edges secured

5. Pin the lining to the top pieces and stitch them together.  Press.

Note: if you prefer to save time and use the sewing machine, simply skip the step 4 and 5: pin the lining and top fabric right sides together and sew alongside the top edges. Turn outside out and press.

 

You now have the bodice ready, time for the other components – the skirt, bustle pad and the pocket.

The skirt.

  1. Cut the fabric according to the pattern.
  2. Sew the pieces together.
  3. Hem the skirt – an inch wide hem seems to work fine, giving it enough weight, but smooth finish too.
  4. Place the skirt on a flat surface and pin the tapes into position.I used the same position as in the original, but do try it out first to make sure that the tied up skirt is not too short or too long. Stitch them securely, but make sure the stitches do not show too much on the right side.

10. pinning the tapes inside the skirt

  1.    Cut small tabs and place them on the hem directly below the individual ties. Stitch firmly into position – only at the short sides, making sure the tapes can pass under them freely
11.a tabs in place! (4)

tabs in place!

  1.  Cut out the waistband – it should be long enough to go around your high waist with a small overlap, and quite narrow.
  2. If you plan to have a watch pocket , cut it out now in two layers of silk or linen – it should be big enough to accommodate your watch  (or a ph0ne….). Place right sides together, sew, turn out and press.

12. pocket ready

It is time to put all the pieces together – and it is not an easy task!

  1. Pin the bodice parts onto the waistband. Try to waistband on and make sure the pieces are in the right position.  You might discover it is easier to simply put the waistband on the dummy, then pin the pieces onto it – saves time. Mark the final position of the bodice on the waistband and sew – make sure you sew only through the top layer of the bodice.
  2.   Pin the skirt onto the waistband– the front part is mostly lying flat, the back will be cartridge pleated. At that stage you are simply making sure where to start the pleating!
  3. If you are happy with the position and know how much fabric has to be pleated into how much space, prepare a needle with a long and strong thread and sew a running stitch through the skirt to be pleated. The pleats should be small – depending on how much fabric you have, you should have your stitches around 1cm long. Draw the thread to see if the pleated section matches its place on the waistband. If it does, tie a strong knot in the thread to make sure the pleats stay together.
  4.  Sew the skirt onto the waistband – use the machine for the front parts where the skirt lies flat, and then, with a strong thread attach the cartridge pleats

13. attaching the cartridge pleats onto the waistband

  1.  Try the skirt on – again a dummy is a good option as well.You can now mark the position of the buttons on the shoulder straps – do not do it earlier on as the weight of the skirt will change the position of the bodice a bit!
14. trying the almost finished skirt on a padded dummy

trying the almost finished skirt on a padded dummy

  1.  If everything fits snugly, attach the pocket to the waistband. Then sew the lining onto the waistband, covering its insides

15. all pieces together - not the waistband can be covered by the lining of the bodice

  1.  Cut out the little bustle pieces, place right sides together and sew along the outside edges, leaving part of the inside open. Turn inside out and stuff with some scraps. Pin  or sew shut  and stitch to the waistband at the back of the skirt

18. bustle pad stitched in position

  1.  All that needs to be done now is to sew the buttons on ( I covered mine with taffeta, using tiny ones on the shoulder straps and bigger ones at the side closure then make the buttonholes.

20. side closure buttons

The skirt is ready now!  Here worn tied up to facilitate walking around..

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 The jacket.

As mentioned before, I decided to use the pattern for the back from Janet Arnold and to improvise the front.

  1. Cut the back pieces in calico using a scaled pattern from J. Arnold. Cut all the back pieces including the peplum gussets etc. Also, cut out the sleeve.
  2. Draw a simple piece or the front – the important measurements here are the width – front to side seam at the bust and the waist level, the shoulder seam and the front length.
  1.  Pin the parts together and put the jacket on the dummy. Pin the back piece onto the dummy and start working on your experimental piece. Mark the waist position, the length in front, back and sides. Mark the darts.  Once the front starts to resemble a piece of clothing, take it off the dummy, adjust the corrections, and sew the mock up parts together.
  2.  Put it on the dummy again – if the back and sides are ok when the front is closed, you can now work on the shape of the lapels. Mark how long you want them to be, where is the best place to attach the collar, how high you want it to button up. Draft a collar pattern and experiment with that too.

 

  1.   Adjust as many times as necessary till you are satisfied with the look. Then take the mock up off the dummy – it is a good idea to try it on now on your own body too.
22. paper pattern for the jacket ready

paper pattern for the jacket ready

 

Note – it hugely helps if you have another person who knows her/his way around patterning helping  – then you can skip the dummy process and have the patterns adjusted directly on yourself.

  1.  Unpick the seams, perform any necessary corrections and voila! You have a pattern.  You can now use your calico pieces as a stock pattern or use them to copy the pattern on a paper.
  2.  Cut out the pieces in your lining fabric

23. lining pieces cut out

  1.    Just on the safe side (if you are not lucky enough to have another costumier at hand…) pin the lining together and try it on  your stays and skirt. Any corrections here should be small, but better to see them on the lining than on the top fabric.  Here, although the mock up seemed fine,  I discovered the shoulder seams still needed adjusting
24. lining pinned, tried onto the corset and the skirt for one final check

lining pinned, tried onto the corset and the skirt for one final check

25. lining pinned - back view

lining pinned – back view

  1.  Adjust if necessary , transfer any corrections onto the pattern and then and sew the lining pieces together

26. lining stitched together

  1.  Cut out the top fabric pieces.  Stitch the darts in the front parts first. Sew in the back gusset, then the front pieces and then the little side and back peplum pieces. Sew the shoulder seam.

27. jacket top fabric stitched - back view

  1.  For authentic looking finish – and if your fabric is difficult to open seam press, couch the seams down with linen or silk thread. Fold the edges and stitch them down.
  2. The sleeves – sew the top fabric sleeves – you can leave the cuff part open, or closed. Couch down the seam.  The lining: stitch the cuffs to the lining of the sleeves first  then sew them shut.
30. lining sleeves with the cuffs attached

lining sleeves with the cuffs attached

 

31. lining sleeves ready

lining sleeves ready

  1. Insert the sleeves into the armscythes. Pin carefully from underside first.  When you reach the top part of the shoulder, you will see there is some fabric left. Either form it into small pleats to fit the armhole, or, as I did, use a strong thread to sew a running stitch near the edge and gather the pleats as you would have done for cartridge pleating – though here is simply helps to control the tiny pleats. Pin the section in place. Sew the sleeve in and repeat for the second sleeve and for the lining sleeves.
  2.  Time for the collar.  You should have the pieces cut out – both top side and lining in wool
32.

the collar pieces

  1.  Take the top fabric piece and attach a small piece of buckram using parallel rows of stitching.
33.

collar inside – attaching the buckram

  1. Sew the reinforced collar onto the jacket.
  2.  Put the lining in. Pin it carefully to the bodice and sew. Once you have done the bottom hem, and attached the lining in front and upper parts, do the same do the wool cuffs at the sleeves
35.

detail of the lining stitched to the bodice

  1. For the front, I have decided to use a facing. Cut the facing part big enough for the front part of the jacket, you will need 2 pieces. Stitch them carefully to the front, upper and lower edge of the jacket – and to the lining near the dart.
37.

facing pinned in ready for stitching

  1. Pin and stitch the collar lining into place. Mark the position of the front buttonholes than set to work on them – either on a machine or by hand.

 

38.

buttonholes and buttons in place

  1.  If you are lucky enough to have appropriate buttons ready – all that remains is to sew the buttons on. If not – make the buttons using moulds and bits of your top fabric.
  2.  Sew the buttons to the front edge, then proceed to add the decorative ones on both sides of the bodice, at the cuffs (if you want to have buttoned cuffs, that is), and at the peplum

 

Your habit is now ready!

The whole outfit is worn over a chemise and stays (here once made using a Mantua  Makers pattern – minus the lacing on the hip gussets. The others I had with lacing on tended to dig into the flesh when riding…).

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Then a linen petticoat, and a habit shirt with frilled cuffs, with a simple silk stock.

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My hat here is a simple silk topper with some rooster feathers attached.

 

and the result – photos  on foot – from an event in Hereford

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And with a mount..

 

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Side saddle pictured  here is of a Victorian design – much safer to ride in than the Regency ones, and the skirt works reasonably well, although it has to be said that without a help of a groom who would hoist me into the saddle and help the skirt lie flat over the pommels, it was very difficult to get the folds lie correctly and to adjust the length. Still, the skirt seemed to be reasonably secure to be ridden in, though the cut means it is not perfect for the Victorian saddle.    but more about the Victorian habit in a few days time…. 🙂

 

Bibliography

Janet Arnold, Patterns of Fashion, Macmillan,  New York, 1984

The Collection of the Kyoto Costume Institute; Fashion, a History from the 18th to the 20th century,  Taschen, 2002

Digital Archives of Kyoto Costume Institute: http://www.kci.or.jp/archives/index_e.html [Accessed 8/01/2012]

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1785 Riding Habit

 

 

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I have always admired the simple elegance of 18th and 19th century riding habits. They were practical, sturdy garments but with undeniable air of sophistication and grandeur.  Especially the 18th century ones- How can a girl resist one of these?

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sir Joshua Reynolds, Lady Worsley, 1776

 

or these…

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riding coat, Victoria and Albert muesum, around 1760

More habit pictures across the ages on the Pinterest board

So when I stared learning how to ride side-saddle, I thought that would be a perfect opportunity to make one. My heart was set on the later 18th century one, found in Victoria and Albert museum.

 

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It was made in glazed red wool, lined with glazed linen and faced with wool.

Since I intend to use my habit for hunting, red wasn’t the best option – too similar to the pink coats of the hunt service folks!  Dark green was the second best choice.

 The materials I used were:

Thick wool for the jacket – 2 m- I chose to make the jacket thicker than the skirt mostly because of the temperatures one faces during winter hunting

2 metres of left over wool for toile

4 metres of regular wool for the skirt and waistcoat

6 metres of silk taffeta

0.5 metre of linen for the waistcoat

16 buttons for the waistcoat

35 buttons for the jacket

Gold metallic braid for the decoration ( I used up about 6 metres)

Gold metallic thread and some embroidery silks

Silk and linen threads for stitching.

 

The whole outfit was hand stitched – but obviously if you prefer modern techniques,  machine can be used to save up on time!

 

The skirt:

That was the easiest part. . I made mine out of a big rectangle of fabric, lined with silk and cartridge pleated to a narrow waistband.  You can fins detailed instructions in my article on the 17th cent banqueting gown – I used the very same techniques – though I made the hem folded deeper and lining is shorter.   (http://yourwardrobeunlockd.com/historicalperiods/medievalrenaissance/417-a-banqueting-gown

 

 The waistcoat.

I could not actually see much of the waistcoat worn with the original habit, but I found images of a very similar one and used them as my inspiration. Apart from the collar, both waistcoats seem to be double breasted and the cut wouldn’t be that different.

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riding habit waistcoat around 1790 victoria and albert museum

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riding habit waistcoat back

It was relatively easy to work out the pattern from the pictures I cut toile first, experimented with it and amended it till I was satisfied with the fit.  I wanted mine to fit me with or without stays, which was a bit tricky. I decided to line the front layer with wool as well – as it can get quite cold on longer rides!  The back is made of two layers as well, though this time of linen .

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I started work on the back first –  stitched the top and lining layer together at centre back ( leaving about 4 inches undone – that’s when the two parts will be joined later) and bottom hem, turned over and pressed. Repeat on the other half of the back. Once ready, stitch them together at the top and worked the eyelets in linen thread.  Lace them together – it is easier to work with the bits being laced instead of flapping around.

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 Next, add the two fronts on each side – only the top layer first, on both sides. Try it on and make sure the front is flat and the lapels are even.

Add the collar – I interlined mine with buckram to make sure it looks and is as still as the original seems to be, and lined it with wool. Once the collar is in place, you can line the front with another wool layer. Finish off the inside seams and the hem, put it on and mark the position of the buttons and buttonholes.

Buttons are a story into itself.

I couldn’t find any decent metal buttons that would be correct for the period, so decided to cover and embroider my buttons for both the waistcoat and the jacket. In the hindsight, I should probably have allowed for a more time – they do take quite some time!

I used the same cloth I made the waistcoat and skirts from. I divided it into small squares, each big enough to cover the button plus some extra, and stretched it on a tapestry frame

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button making, cloth stretched on a tapestry frame

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button making, cloth stretched on a tapestry frame and divided into squares

I worked in stages

  1.  Make a loop using a thick gold thread – make several in one go. My loop was long enough to go around the button twice.
  2.  Couch the loop down with silk thread – took me ages!
  3.  Embroider the stems with green silk thread
  4. Embroider the  flower in yellow silk thread

I worked on several buttons at the same time – I would make around 6  or 7 and then start the process all again.

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looping the gold thread to form the outline of the button

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loops, couching and embroidery

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cloth taken off the frame

When the embroidery is finished, detach the fabric from the frame and cut the fabric along the lines. You now have lots of squares with embroidered bit on it. Put your button (I used flat wooden ones) on the left side of the square, covering the embroidered bit.   Trim the rest of the fabric so that there is enough left to cover the button. Now you have a circle of fabric – use it on other square pieces so that you do not need to measure things up every time. To cover the button, sew a running stitch near the edge, place the button inside and pull on the thread.  Stitch the edges together. More detailed instructions can be found here:

http://www.craftpudding.com/2007/06/covered-button-tutorial.html

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Work the buttonholes and sew the buttons, and the waistcoat is ready.

 

The jacket.

I had to be bit creative with the pattern. I did not have access to a detailed pattern for a habit from that period, so decided to adapt the slightly earlier one from Janet Arnold. I simply changed the front by adding lapels and adapting the shape of the skirt.

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I must add that originally, working strictly from the picture, I couldn’t see any waist seam – so I cut my jacket without one. However, 400 Years of Fashion, presenting the V&A collection states that there is a waist seam…  which means I will have to remodel the jacket.  Oh well…. If you want to make skirts separate, just follow the pattern from Janet Arnold!

The method.

As always, cut out the toile first. – I this instance it was even more important than usual, as I wasn’t using a pattern I was familiar with or a commercial pattern – I had to check if the fabric hung and fitted correctly.  That was why I decided to use a thicker fabric for the toile – calico toile would no doubt make it easy to see the fit, however it could not mimic the behaviour of heavy and stiff wool. To achieve that,  I used bits of older, low quality  wool I had. And it worked! I basted the pieces together – I included the sleeves since I wanted them to fit closely but somehow allow me quite a lot of freedom of movement – and checked the fit. It needed some adjustments, so I undid the relevant seams, corrected the cut and basted the seams again. I had to repeat the procedure twice before I was satisfied, and then I simply undid the basting and used it as a template for cutting out the top layer and the lining.

I started with top layer, stitching first the back and then the sides and the shoulder seams.  I left the skirts un-pleated – I will do the pleating once the lining is in place.

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hand sewn side seam detail

Lapels- you have a choice how you want your lapels and buttons done: you can either have real buttonholes on them and sew the buttons to the jacket, so that they do button back – or have a fake buttonhole/button arrangement and secure the lapels with hooks and eyes. Mine are the former.

I market the buttonholes and the line for the braid decoration. I cut the line – just enough to allow for the button – and worked around it to prevent fraying. Then I added the gold braid decoration. Having finished with the lapels, you can now sew on the buttons.

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The next step was to make and add the sleeves I stitched the two part sleeve together, right sides together, leaving the cuff part unstitched at that point. I turned the sleeve out, with right sides up, and then finished the cuff – so that when it is turned back, the good side of the seam shows.  Proceed to add the buttonholes/button decoration – again, you can have either false ones or the functional option and I opted for the functional way – real buttonholes and buttons on the main sleeve.  Repeat on the other sleeve and when finished, set it into the armhole.

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The pockets were next.  Start with the pocket itself – mines are from silk. Cut out and stitch the two layers together. (pic.26) Mark the position of the pocket on the skirts, and cut the opening matching the opening of the pocket. Turn the pocket out, so that the left side is out, and set it into the slit, carefully securing the silk to the wool

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Pocket flaps – cut them out, making sure they are a bit longer than the actual pocket slit, line them, it you want to, and add the buttonhole/ decoration.   Pin it in place and stitch them to the skirts with a strong linen thread.

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sewing the pocket in…

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pocket flaps

 

Lining – stitch all the lining together – back first, then front and sleeves and set into the jacket. Pin carefully and let it hang together for a while. Adjust the pining at the hem if necessary and sew it in – at the front, neck hem, the cuffs (or rather before the turn back cuffs start).

Collar was next – again, I made a mock up collar first and experimented with it until i was satisfied with the way it looked together with the lapels. I stitched it to the jacket, lined with another layer of wool and worked the buttonholes so that it buttons down to the jacket.

All that remains now is pleating the vents – I did it precisely as shown in Janet Arnold, and secured them with the buttons and then added buttons at the top, purely for decoration.

Your habit is now ready – all you need it the undergarments, boots, gloves and a tricorn – and a –hunting you can go!

Here pictured at End Audley Hall – it was rather frosty on the day, with minus temperatures, and yet the wool kept me warm and snug.

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This article was originally published in  Your Wardrobe Unlock’d over a two years ago –   and looking back at it from the time perspective I think i need to make another one, updated…. maybe the earlier version? still have enough of the green wool to make a 1760 jacket…. 🙂

 

 

Bibliography:

Janet Arnold, Patterns of Fashion, Macmillan,  New York, 1984

400 Years of Fashion, V&A Publishing, London,  2010

Craftpudding,  http://www.craftpudding.com/2007/06/covered-button-tutorial.html [accessed 28/01/11]

V&A museum online:  http://collections.vam.ac.uk/  [accessed 28/01/11]